QAC Emerging Technologies Quality Assurance
FOCUSED ON THE FUTURE
Welcome to the seventeenth edition of the EmTech newsletter. In this edition, we’ll review levels of vehicle autonomy. This includes reviewing QA Consultants’ solutions regarding self-driving vehicles that have caused deaths or injuries.
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Autonomous Vehicle (AV)
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE’s) defines five levels of automation for a self-driving vehicle (known as an autonomous vehicle) which are adopted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are listed as follows:
- Level 0: No automation, a human driver performs 100% of the driving.
- Level 1: A human driver utilizes an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) for steering, braking,and accelerating.
- Level 2: ADAS partially controls steering, braking, and accelerating while a human driver monitors the driving environment.
- Level 3: Under some circumstances, all driving tasks are performed by the Automated Driving System (ADS). However, a human driver must be ready to take control when it is required.
- Level 4: Under some circumstances, all driving tasks and monitoring the driving environment are performed by ADS and a human driver does not need to pay attention.
- Level 5: Driving in all circumstances is performed 100% by ADS and human drivers are not involved in driving.
Self-Driving Car Crashes Resulted in Deaths or Injuries
In March 2018, a 2017 Tesla Model X SUV crashed on Highway 101 in Mountain View, California which resulted in a fatality. The driver had been accessing a video game on his phone just before the collision occurred . The autopilot navigation system malfunctioned causing the vehicle to crash. Allegedly, the TeslaAutopilot turned the vehicle left causing a head-on collision with the concrete median. Eventually, Tesla was sued over the malfunctioning autopilot.
Recently, there was a fatal crash in Houston, Texas, which involved a 2019 Tesla Model S. The vehicle was traveling at high speeds when it failed to navigate a curve and went off the road. The vehicle crashed into a tree and burst into flames . Though no one was in the driver’s seat, two male bodies were found in the vehicle. The owner of the car was sitting in the backseat and another man was found in the front passenger seat. The investigation is still ongoing.
QAC has different solutions for the quality assurance of autonomous vehicles. We have developed a model-based System Integration Testing (SIT) solution that validates software systems against the functional requirements or specifications by leveraging ISO 26262 standards. QA Consultants’ xCog solution enables automated testing of cognitive systems, in particular, the Cognitive Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) inside the vehicle such as the autopilot functionality. Currently, QA Consultants is developing a solution to identify the vulnerability of autonomous vehicles against various cybersecurity attack vectors. This includes having a mechanism to detect cyber-attacks, implement Penetration Testing and Fault Injection to identify vulnerabilities in the autonomous vehicle.